Chleb. Technika

Tytuł Chleb. Technika
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Strona 1 Strona 2 Strona 3 BREAD A Baker’s book of techniques and recipes 2nd edition 01_9781118132715-FM.indd 1 10/26/12 3:17 PM Strona 4 01_9781118132715-FM.indd 2 10/26/12 3:17 PM Strona 5 BREAD A Baker’s book of techniques and recipes 2nd edition Jeffrey Hamelman Illustrations and Photography Chiho Kaneko 01_9781118132715-FM.indd 3 10/26/12 3:17 PM Strona 6 This book is printed on acid-free paper. ∞ Copyright © 2013, 2004 by Jeffrey Hamelman. All rights reserved. Interior line drawings and photography © 2013 by Chiho Kaneko. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey. Published simultaneously in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400, fax 978-646-8600, or on the web at Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, 201-748-6011, fax 201-748-6008, or online at . Evaluation copies are provided to qualified academics and professionals for review purposes only, for use in their courses during the next academic year. These copies are licensed and may not be sold or transferred to a third party. Upon completion of the review period, please return the evaluation copy to Wiley. Return instructions and a free of charge shipping label are available at Outside of the United States, please contact your local representative. Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and author have used their best efforts in preparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book and specifically disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by sales representatives or written sales materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for your situation. You should consult with a professional where appropriate. Neither the publisher nor author shall be liable for any loss of profit or any other commercial damages, including but not limited to special, incidental, consequential, or other damages. For general information on our other products and services, or technical support, please contact our Customer Care Department within the United States at 800-762-2974, outside the United States at 317-572-3993 or fax 317-572-4002 Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books. For more information about Wiley products, visit our website at www. Interior Design: Vertigo Design NYC Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Hamelman, Jeffrey. Bread: a baker’s book of techniques and recipes / Jeffrey Hamelman; illustrations and photography by Chiho Kaneko. -- Second Edition. pages cm Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-1-118-13271-5 (cloth) 1. Cooking (Bread) 2. Bread. I. Title. TX769.H235 2012 641.81’5--dc23 2012015744 Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 01_9781118132715-FM.indd 4 10/26/12 3:17 PM Strona 7 I dedicate this book to all my teachers. The scope and range of your skills have had an immeasurable impact on my life. The best thanks I can offer you is to present a book that is beneficial to other bakers. And if I achieve that goal, I will have succeeded completely. 01_9781118132715-FM.indd 5 10/26/12 3:17 PM Strona 8 contents Recipes viii Acknowledgments x Changes to the Second Edition xii Foreword by Raymond Calvel xv Preface xvi part one Ingredients and Techniques 1 1 The Bread-Making Process from Mixing through Baking 5 2 Ingredients and Their Function 29 3 Hand Techniques 53 part two Formulas and Decorative Breads 81 4 Breads Made with Yeasted Pre-Ferments 87 5 Levain Breads 145 6 Sourdough Rye Breads 203 7 Straight Doughs 267 8 Miscellaneous Breads 299 9 Braiding Techniques 367 10 Decorative and Display Projects 395 01_9781118132715-FM.indd 6 10/26/12 3:17 PM Strona 9 Appendix 421 Developing and Perpetuating a Sourdough Culture 421 Rheological Testing and the Analysis of Flour 434 Flour Additives 441 Baker’s Percentage 442 Desired Dough Temperature 446 Computing Batch Cost 449 Useful Conversions and Equivalencies 449 Sample Proofing Schedule 452 Glossary 453 Bibliography 459 Epilogue 461 Index 462 01_9781118132715-FM.indd 7 10/26/12 3:17 PM Strona 10 Recipes 4 Breads Made with yeasted Durum Bread   174 pre-ferments Sourdough Baguettes   176 Baguettes with Poolish   92 Golden Raisin Bread   178 Baguettes with Pâte Fermentée   94 Walnut Raisin Ciabatta   180 Ciabatta with Stiff Biga   96 Five-Grain Levain   182 Ciabatta with Poolish   99 Hazelnut and Fig Levain   184 Ciabatta with Olive Oil and Wheat Germ   101 Sourdough Seed Bread   186 Pain Rustique   103 Olive Levain   188 Country Bread   105 Cheese Bread   190 Rustic Bread   107 Normandy Apple Bread   192 Roasted Potato Bread   109 Roasted Garlic Levain   194 Potato Bread with Roasted Onions   112 Harvest Bread   196 Honey Spelt Bread   115 Carrot and Walnut Bread   198 Whole-Wheat Bread   117 Roasted Hazelnut and Prune Bread   200 Whole-Wheat Bread with Hazelnuts and Currants   119 6 Sourdough rye Breads    Whole-Wheat Bread with a Multigrain 40 Percent Caraway Rye   208 Soaker   122 Whole-Rye and Whole-Wheat Bread   210 Brown Rice Bread   125 Deli Rye Bread   212 Five-Grain Bread with Pâte Fermentée   127 Sourdough Rye with Walnuts   214 Cracked Wheat Bread   129 Three-Stage 90 Percent Sourdough Rye   218 Sunflower Seed Bread with Pâte Fermentée   132 Three-Stage 80 Percent Sourdough Rye   221 Golden Raisin and Walnut Bread   135 Three-Stage 70 Percent Sourdough Rye   224 Buttermilk Bread   137 Sourdough Rye with Raisins and Walnuts   227 Semolina (Durum) Bread   139 Quarkbrot   229 Semolina (Durum) Bread with a 66 Percent Sourdough Rye   231 Whole-Grain Soaker   141 Flaxseed Bread   233 Corn Bread   143 80 Percent Sourdough Rye with a Rye-Flour Soaker   235 5 levain Breads    70 Percent Rye with a Rye Soaker and Vermont Sourdough   152 Whole-Wheat Flour   237 Vermont Sourdough with Whole Wheat   154 Vollkornbrot   239 Vermont Sourdough with Increased Vollkornbrot with Flaxseeds   241 Whole Grain   156 Vollkornbrot with Currants   243 Pain au Levain (Sourdough Bread)   158 Horst Bandel’s Black Pumpernickel   246 Pain au Levain with Whole-Wheat Flour   160 Flaxseed Rye with an Old Bread Soaker   250 Pain au Levain with Mixed Sourdough Black Bread   252 Starters   162 Five-Grain Sourdough with Rye Sourdough   254 Miche, Pointe-à-Callière   164 Sunflower Seed Bread with Rye Sourdough   257 Mixed-Flour Miche   166 Beer Bread   259 Whole-Wheat Levain   168 65 Percent Sourdough Rye with Rye Whole-Wheat Multigrain   170 Sourdough   262 Semolina Bread   172 viii Bread: A Baker’s book of techniques and recipes 01_9781118132715-FM.indd 8 10/26/12 3:17 PM Strona 11 65 Percent Sourdough Rye with Firm Bialys   332 White Levain   264 Irish Soda Bread   334 65 Percent Rye with No Acidified Flour   266 Traditional English Hot Cross Buns   336 Pretzels   340 7 Straight doughs    Pizza Dough   344 Hand-Mixed White Bread   269 Tarte Flambée   347 Unkneaded Six-Fold French Bread   272 Pissaladière   348 Baguettes de Tradition   273 Fougasse with Olives   351 “Slow Rise” (Pointage en Bac) Baguettes   274 Focaccia   354 French Bread   276 Rosemary Crackers with Olive Oil   356 Oatmeal Bread   277 Lavash   357 Oatmeal Bread with Cinnamon and Raisins   279 Socca   358 Five-Grain Bread   281 Whole-Wheat Flat Bread with Filling   359 Challah   284 Two Fillings   360 Berne Brot   286 Lebkuchen   361 Pullman Bread   288 Crackers and Flat Breads   364 Whey Bread   289 Pancakes and Waffles   366 Semolina Bread with a Soaker and Fennel Seed   290 9 braiding techniques    Whole Wheat with Pecans and Challah   372 Golden Raisins   292 One-Strand Rolls   373 Hazelnut and Fig Bread with Fennel Seeds and Rosemary   294 Two-Strand Braid   375 German Farmer’s Bread   296 Three-Strand Braid   377 Toast Bread   298 Four-Strand Braid   379 Five-Strand Braid   381 8 miscellaneous breads    Six-Strand Braid   383 Brioche   300 Seven-Strand Braid   387 Beesting (Bienenstich)    306 Tiered Braids   388 Brioche Coffee Cake with Cheese Filling, Fruit, Two Advanced Braiding Techniques   390 and Streusel   308 Braided Brioche with Fresh Ginger Cooked in 10 decorative and display projects    Honey   310 Light Yeasted Decorative Dough   396 Brioche Feuilletée   311 Dark Yeasted Decorative Dough   397 Flamiche aux Maroilles   316 Making a Lattice Braid   398 Savory Brioche Empanadas   317 Sugar Syrup for Pâte Morte   409 Savory Crown Tart   318 Pâte Morte   410 Swiss Farmhouse Bread   320 Sesame Bread Sticks   323 appendix    Grissini   324 Developing a Liquid Levain Culture   427 Soft Butter Rolls   326 Developing a Stiff Levain Culture   429 Bagels   328 Developing a Sourdough Rye Culture   430 Simits   331 ix recipes 01_9781118132715-FM.indd 9 10/26/12 3:17 PM Strona 12 Acknowledgments I have the immense good fortune of being a the last couple of decades was then barely nascent. baker. For me, the baker’s life has always been Where once there was anonymity, we now have bak- one of work and reward. What begins as ers enjoying celebrity status. Regardless of the lights tangible—the work—has often over the years and clamor surrounding baking today, the bread itself been transformed into something less tangible, is still the most important thing. A baker has the because the rewards of baking are not just financial. potential to make breads that are enriching, delicious, The rewards can take the form of community service, and memorable. This, I hope, remains our steadfast personal growth, and often social and spiritual goal. development. It may be commonplace these days for What a wonderful feeling it is to turn and look people to romanticize the life of a baker, but it would behind us at the hundreds of generations who have be wrong to underestimate the amount of work baked before us, and realize that we have inherited the baker is required to perform daily. Coupled as it the accumulation of their experience. When we turn is with early and often long hours, the baking trade and look forward to the innumerable generations of is a strenuous one that requires physical dexterity, bakers to come, we realize that we are at the fulcrum finesse, and stamina. Years of determined focus and of this great balance, imbued with a deep responsibil- commitment to hard work are necessary in order to ity to the future, and hopefully equally imbued with achieve mastery. gratitude to our colleagues from the past. When I began baking professionally in the mid- I would like to acknowledge and thank the read- 1970s, I was attracted by both the manual nature of ers and users of this book. Whatever little spark the the work and the anonymity of being a baker. What book may have ignited in you, you have expressed has become an explosion of “artisan” bakeries in that spark by becoming better bakers and better x Bread: A Baker’s book of techniques and recipes 01_9781118132715-FM.indd 10 10/26/12 3:17 PM Strona 13 friends to good bread. It is only because of you that I leave for last my thanks to my dear wife and this second edition exists. partner and best friend Chiho. She inspires me daily Through her belief in and commitment to both with the lucidity of her life and vision, as clear as a the first and second editions of this book, Pam Chirls, bird’s. Her ability to elucidate the inner nature of my editor at John Wiley & Sons, has manifested her things is remarkable, and her illustrations and photos own values and her steadfast dedication to the publi- add the perfect visual aspect to the book. cation of books that she believes have lasting culinary After all, this book, no matter how good, is merely value. I am grateful and immeasurably fortunate to words on paper, at best a two-dimensional endeavor. have such a superlative editor. The process and the joy of discovery, of learning not Debbie Wink has labored with a sharp eye and the “secrets” but rather the nature and needs and a sharp pencil, and meticulously ensured that the characteristics of bread, is there for all of us to attain, formulas and the scientific information in the second each in our own way, at our own pace, beyond the edition are accurate. Looking over my shoulder, she confines of any book. We learn these things with has so often seen things that I missed, and her efforts floury palms and sweaty faces. We bake, we learn, we have made for a marked improvement in this edition. share our loaves, and really, this above all is the best James MacGuire, the master from Montreal, has thing of all. Remember this—for all your days, there been a steadfast friend and colleague, and his inces- will be a hungry mouth for every loaf that comes out sant curiosity about all things related to bread has of your oven. nourished and enhanced my own, and I am a better baker thanks to him. With apologies to T. S. Eliot, I must say: Il miglior fabbro. xi acknowledgments 01_9781118132715-FM.indd 11 10/26/12 3:17 PM Strona 14 CHANGES TO THE SECOND EDITION I n the years since Bread was originally pub- quite varied and exceptional in their individual ways. lished in 2004, there have been substantial In fact, I fear some may be in danger of being lost changes in the quality of baking in America, forever and it’s my hope that including them here and bread that is both good to look at and will bring wider exposure and appreciation. Some of nourishing and pleasing to eat is now much my favorites are Swiss Farmhouse Bread, Lebkuchen, more available in bakeries across the country. Further, Flaxseed Rye Bread Using an Old Dough Soaker, the quality of the best bread being made by avid Brioche Feuilletée, German Farmer’s Bread, Beer Bread, home bakers rivals that made in the nation’s finest and Baguettes de Tradition. A patient reader may per- bakeries. These positive changes are not, of course, haps find more to add to this list. the result of the publication of this or other books Many bakers eschew mixing machines and prefer over the past decade. Thanks and credit goes to the the direct connection of hand to dough, and I’ve gradual evolution of the craft that has resulted from included a section on hand mixing for those inter- steady dedication to learning and sharing, exhibited ested. There really is no better way to see the extraor- by both professional and recreational bakers alike. dinary transformation a dough undergoes than to There are a number of additions to the second edi- mix it by hand. It’s hard to say if the tactile pleasure tion of Bread, beginning with the inclusion of about of hand mixing surpasses the education of the hands. 30 new recipes. Both old friends from my early baking No matter, all bakers will benefit from learning the days as well as more recently developed recipes now method, and most will be amply surprised at how rub shoulders with the original 100-plus breads. The good hand mixed breads can be. new breads are not only delicious, but they are also xii Bread: A Baker’s book of techniques and recipes 01_9781118132715-FM.indd 12 10/26/12 3:17 PM Strona 15 There are many new illustrations in the second My goal in writing a second edition is simple: to edition, as well as several new photographs, and make the book fuller, richer, broader, and ultimately these in combination will hopefully add to the visual more valuable and pertinent to fellow bakers. I breadth of the book and enhance its value for all don’t have any secrets to hold back—what good are who use it. secrets after all, since they preclude dialog, and the Finally, the high-gluten flour in several of the dialog that comes from the sharing of experience first edition formulas has been replaced with lower- with colleagues is a lively joy. The great Raymond protein flour, a reflection of what I perceive as bakers’ Calvel said, “La vérité sort du four.” The truth comes increased confidence and capability working with out of the oven. I’ll be the last to judge whether my less-strong doughs. Since higher-protein flours absorb efforts in writing this second edition have succeeded. more liquid, the formulas in which the high-gluten Yes, you are the judge. Thank you. flour has been replaced with bread flour also have somewhat softer dough textures, even without an increase in dough hydration. In the first edition, I gen- erally stayed on the side of slightly firmer doughs for the sake of those readers who found loose-textured doughs challenging to work with; what I perceive as an increased ability among bakers to manage wetter doughs has led me to abandon the firmer dough approach. changes to the second edition xiii 01_9781118132715-FM.indd 13 10/26/12 3:17 PM Strona 16 xiv Bread: A Baker’s book of techniques and recipes 01_9781118132715-FM.indd 14 10/26/12 3:17 PM Strona 17 foreword I have taken pleasure in reading Bread and of myself in these pages, and often, a better version being asked to give my impressions. It was for of myself. me a most agreeable surprise to find that such I can only hope that those whose mission it is to a book exists in English and I must add that I make good bread seize the opportunity to read our find it most difficult to adequately express the colleague Jeffrey Hamelman’s book, heed his advice, joy that this has brought me. and adopt his methods using due care and respect. Everything about good bread is covered: how it is I should also say that it is clear that he has read made, its role in gastronomy, and as with good bread my writings and often shares my opinions. I thank itself, one can hardly resist indulging in the pure and him for this. simple pleasure of partaking in it and savoring it. As I read I sensed his great experience, which to I, who have written so much about bread, and so me is such a precious thing, and therefore, in conclu- steadfastly maintained that well-made bread must sion, I can only say bravo and once again, thanks. both look good and be good to eat, see something Raymond Calvel xv foreword 01_9781118132715-FM.indd 15 10/26/12 3:17 PM Strona 18 Preface B read. The process of bread baking is It is difficult, albeit tempting, to generalize about at once a simple endeavor, yet at the the quality of life enjoyed by bakers. The style of work same time it can be one of enormous varies so widely from one shop to another that no complexity. accurate generalization is possible. There are bakers The merest of ingredients are who work in hard hats, using machinery on a scale required, and these few are easily procured, requir- that produces tons and tons of bread. There are bak- ing little intricacy in their preparation. And since so ers who work in factories larger than four football few ingredients are needed or necessary to the bread fields, and whose breads travel thousands of miles baker, from one bake to the next not much seems in a frozen state before reaching the final consumer. to change. One style of mixer suffices and can mix a There are bakers who are not bakers at all, but simply full range of doughs. Some couche linens, a few stacks specialized human cogs in a production plant that of proofing baskets, a decent scale, a durable work keeps them separate and oblivious to the labor of table, a couple of razor blades stuck on slender lames, others in the same bakery. In these conditions, some and a sturdy oven: The needs are few. And yet from are mixers mixing, some are shapers shaping, and the time the grain is planted until baked bread is on some are oven workers involved in the actual bake. A the table, the hands and skills of dozens of people shaper leaves and applies for work in another bakery. have been engaged. Farmers in the field plow, plant, “Can you mix?” asks the owner. “No, I can’t, but I sure cultivate, and harvest. Grain is transported to the can shape,” comes the reply. In this sort of bakery, mill to be tempered, ground, sifted, analyzed, and the segregation of labor ensures that no one person bagged—brought from berry to flour. Flour in the knows all of the owner’s “secrets” of production. I bag is trucked and hefted to the domain of the baker. would contend that the cogs-in-a-wheel approach Here the final magic is performed, for the flour is has, at first, a de-skilling effect on the workers; when nothing by itself—it needs the baker to bring it to the situation is prolonged, it degenerates into a dehu- fulfillment, to coax all the flavor he or she can from manizing effect. the inert grain. The flour, unable to sustain life on its I like to think of a more traditional sort of bak- own, is transformed by the hands of the baker into ery when I consider the quality of life possible for wondrous bread, nurturing and nourishing. What we a baker. This baker has earned, through hard work, hold in our hands, months after the original plant- perseverance, and dedication, the ability to perform ing of the seed, is the final resolution of the labor of all the tasks associated with bread production. The many: a loaf of bread—ephemeral, fragrant, alive. subtleties of the mix, the complexities and variations xvi Bread: A Baker’s book of techniques and recipes 01_9781118132715-FM.indd 16 10/26/12 3:17 PM Strona 19 involved in fermentation, the strong hands and the the oven is loaded, again and again, and the bread delicate touch needed for shaping, and the finesse racks are filled with golden crackling loaves. At day’s in scoring and baking the golden loaves are all skills end, the baker’s pores have become permeated with he or she has developed during years of focus and a mingling of sweat and the fragrance of bread. And growth. Problems and mishaps occur in the bake- each morning, the bread racks are again empty, with shop, as they do everywhere, and years of experienc- yesterday’s breads now in hundreds and hundreds of ing the vagaries of the bake enable the baker to over- bellies. The bakery is quiet, the cycle of labor ready to come obstacles and proceed. begin again. In the traditional bakery, in all likelihood the baker The baker’s life may be more aligned with that of knows a good portion of his customers, at least well the dairy farmer—milking the cows on Christmas enough to offer a smile and a hello. He surely has day, just as the baker must set the poolish and sour- heard many a story of how his breads are enjoyed by dough that day—than to the work life of most other toddlers and children, by the elderly, and by adults in members of society. Is this baking life then a drudg- their prime. It may be difficult to sort out who owns ery? I have worn an apron and been involved with the place—is it the baker, who provides nourishment the work of bread for more than a third of a century. and pleasure to the community, or is it the commu- In my experience, baking has not been a segmented nity, which provides income and a livelihood to the job, where I have been a mixer for a decade and then baker? There is a mutual need and a mutual benefit a shaper for another. For one whose work entails to this relationship. The baker is a proud, valued, and the all of baking, there is no confusing the natural essential person in the life of the community. repetitiveness of the work with drudgery. I believe The work is demanding, ongoing, and manual— that, in the lives of many bakers, an immense inner no need to romanticize it. The perishable nature dignity develops from the daily immersion in the of bread requires a constant presence and connec- labor of the bake. John Ruskin, in the nineteenth cen- tion to its life cycle on the part of the baker. The tury, said “Laborare est orare,” that is, “Labor is prayer.” sourdough cultures are daily links in an old chain, The baker who has constructed a life around the and each day they must be carefully fed, nurtured, wholeness of bread making might justifiably feel that ripened. Each day, their living contents are dispersed Ruskin was speaking about him. into the loaves, suffusing them with enlivening aro- mas and delicate, distinct flavors. Each day, the ban- netons and couches give up their fragile contents, and xvii preface 01_9781118132715-FM.indd 17 10/26/12 3:17 PM Strona 20 01_9781118132715-FM.indd 18 10/26/12 3:17 PM

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